From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the various editions of the book, The Goetia, see The Lesser Key of Solomon.Goetia (Medieval Latin, anglicised goety //, from Greek γοητεία goitia "sorcery") refers to a practice which includes the invocation of angels or the evocation of demons, and usage of the term in English largely derives from the 17th-century grimoire The Lesser Key of Solomon, which features an Ars Goetia as its first section. It contains descriptions of the evocation of seventy-two demons, famously edited by Aleister Crowley in 1904 as The Book of the Goetia of Solomon the King.
Goetic Theurgy, another practice described in the Lesser Key of Solomon, is similar to the book's description of Goetia, but is used to invoke aerial spirits.
EtymologyAncient Greek γοητεία (goitia) means "charm, jugglery" from γόης "sorcerer, wizard". The meaning of "sorcerer" is attested in a scholion, referring to the Dactyli, stating that according to Pherecydes[disambiguation needed] and Hellanicus, those to the left are goētes, while those to the right are deliverers from sorcery. The word may be ultimately derived from the verb γοάω "groan, bewail". Derived terms are γοήτευμα "a charm" and γοητεύω "to bewitch, beguile".
Γοητεία was a term for witchcraft in Hellenistic magic. Latinized goetia via French goétie was adopted into English as goecie, goety in the 16th century.
Renaissance magicDuring the Renaissance goeteia (Latinized goetia, French goétie, English goety) was sometimes contrasted with magia as black (evil) vs. white magic, or with theurgy as "low" vs. "high" magic.
James Sanford in his 1569 translation of Agrippa's Of the vanitie and uncertaintie of artes and sciences has
Georg Pictorius in 1562 uses goetie synonymously with "ceremonial magic".
The Ars Goetia
Main article: The Lesser Key of SolomonArs Goetia is the title of the first section of The Lesser Key of Solomon, containing descriptions of the seventy-two demons that King Solomon is said to have evoked and confined in a bronze vessel sealed by magic symbols, and that he obliged to work for him. The Ars Goetia assigns a rank and a title of nobility to each member of the infernal hierarchy, and gives the demons "signs they have to pay allegiance to", or seals. The lists of entities in the Ars Goetia correspond (to high but varying degree, often according to edition) with those in Johann Weyer's Pseudomonarchia Daemonum an appendix appearing in later editions of his De Praestigiis Daemonum, of 1563.
A revised English edition of the Ars Goetia was published in 1904 by Samuel Liddell Mathers and Aleister Crowley as The Goetia. based on manuscripts from the British Museum, with additions by Crowley, including a Preliminary Invocation drawn from Goodwin's Fragment of a Graeco-Egyptian Work upon Magic, and the essay The Initiated Interpretation of Ceremonial Magic. It is not a faithful edition of the source manuscripts but contains several innovations, including some evocations in Enochian written by Crowley. In his introduction, Crowley argues that the work of demonic evocation is merely a form of psychological self-exploration. It has since become a relatively well-known book of magic and has even been featured in places like the graphic novel Promethea by Alan Moore and James Blish's novel Black Easter.
The Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage
Main article: The Book of AbramelinThe Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage is considered both a theurgic and goetic book of magic, mostly used in a religious context. Contrary to the other Goetia Grimoires, this book does not denote the evocation of demons to do one's bidding or involuntary handywork, but describes how one might summon these infernal forces, solely for the purpose of excommunicating them from the life of the Magus. This book was considered a system that led the aspirant closer to the goal of henosis, or spiritual reunion with God. Describing how to summon the dukes of Hell, even Lucifer, for the purpose of resisting the temptation of their vices, and binding their influence in the aspirant's life.
This book told a system of holy magic through a six-month purification, then after the conversation of the Holy Guardian Angel, one would summon the four Great Kings of Hell (Lucifer, Leviathan, Satan, Belial), and make them sign an oath. This Oath (after gaining the power of the supernal realm), would grant the Adept power over the Infernal Realm and aid the Adept in discovering the "True and Sacred Wisdom" in the form of magic squares.
In popular culture
Main article: Goetic demons in popular culture
- "LSJ". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2013-10-18.
- "LSJ". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2013-10-18.
- K. Müller, Fragmenta historicorum Graecorum Paris: Didot, 1841-1870, fr. 7, Ἀριστεροὶ μὲν, ὥς φησι Φερεκύδης, οἱ γόητες αὐτῶν· οἱ δὲ ἀναλύοντες, δεξιοὶ, ὡς Ἑλλάνικος.
- Stephen Skinner & David Rankine, The Goetia of Dr. Rudd Golden Hoard Press, 2007, pp. 47-50
- The Secrets of the Magical Grimoires, By: Aaron Leitch Chapter 1
- "Sacred Magic of Abramelin: The Second Book: The Seventeenth Chapter. What We Should Answer Unto the Interrogations of the Spirits, and How We Should Resist Their Demands". Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2013-10-18.
- E. J. Langford Garstin, Theurgy or The Hermetic Practice: A Treatise on Spiritual Alchemy. Berwick: Ibis Press, 2004. (Published posthumously)
- Aleister Crowley (ed.), Samuel Liddell Mathers (trans.), The Goetia: The Lesser Key of Solomon the King. York Beach, ME : Samuel Weiser (1995) ISBN 0-87728-847-X.
- Stephen Skinner, & David Rankine, The Goetia of Dr Rudd: The Angels and Demons of Liber Malorum Spirituum Seu Goetia (Sourceworks of Ceremonial Magic). Golden Hoard Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-9547639-2-3
Daemon: noun, (in ancient Greek belief) a divinity or supernatural being of a nature between gods and humans. -- OED.
The Pseudomonarchia Daemonum and The Goetia
The first list is from the Pseudomonarchia daemonum by Johann Weyer (aka Wier, Wierus), which he included in his De praestigiis daemonum in 1583, and in 1584 Reginald Scot included the same list in The Discoverie of Witchcraft.
The second list, the seals, and engravings are from the Goetia at sacred-texts.com - 1904 translation edited by S. L. MacGregor Mathers. If you wish to buy a copy of the Lesser Key (which contains the Goetia) I suggest Joseph Peterson's edition. I'm only using Mather's inferior edition here because its copyright (along with Mathers himself) has long expired. The Goetia is part of the Lemegeton, also known as the Lesser Key of Solomon.
Scot's edition of the Pseudomonarchia Daemonum is in all probability the source text for the Goetia. While the Goetia includes 4 Daemons that the Pseudomonarchia Daemonum does not (Vassago and the last three), Peterson points out that "The fourth spirit in Weyers text, Pruflas alias Bufas, was accidently left out of Reginald Scots English translation (found in his highly rational 1584 Discovery of Witchcraft), or was already missing from the edition of Weyer used by Scot. It is also the only spirit from Weyers list that is not found in the Lemegeton.". It seems to me that the Goetia includes some of Scot's slight mistranslations of names as well. Noone's sure why the order of the daemons got so mixed up between the Goetia and the Pseudomonarchia Daemonum.
The first set of seals come from the Goetia. The bands with the names of the daemons surrounding the seals were added by Mathers. The Goetia did not contain the engravings, either. The engravings Mathers included in his edition were originally by Louis Breton, and included in Dictionnaire Infernal by Collin de Plancy in 1863. De Plancy's list is not reproduced here. The Pseudomonarchia Daemonum did not include engravings or seals.
I've also added the descriptions and seals from Arthur Edward Waite's 1913 The Book of Ceremonial Magic, but it doesn't have its own list as that portion of the book was another translation of the Goetia.
The Grimorium Verum
Trident Books has to say of the Grimorium Verum:
"Grimoirium Verum is, in fact, nothing less than a magician's handbook, containing in small compass the entire rites of preparation, identification of spirits, conjuration and the alleged achievement of the operator's every desire. This book, by traditional definition belongs to black magick, insofar as it tells the operator how to conjure what it admits are demons. In the present state of magical knowledge we would be equally at liberty and even more justified in saying that for all we know the Grimoirium Verum is more original than the Key of Solomon; or that it is one of original books of the Library of Hermes, or even the magical libraries of the Babylonians." They are referring to the Greater Key of Solomon here, and it mentions America, so it isn't that old, at least in its current form. It does not state who Duke Syrach's superior is, so I give him and his subordinates in a seperate list. Presumably, he sould be under Astaroth with Sargatanas and Nebiros as the Grand Grimoire(below) lists Astaroth as "Grand Duke", but considering how bare Beelzebuth's hierarchy is it may have been meant to be under Tarchimache or Fleurety instead.
Hael & Sergulath
Clauneck Musisin Bechard Frimost Khil Mersilde Clistheret Sirchade Segal Hiepacth Humots Frucissiere Guland Surgat Morial Frutimiere Huictiigara
The Grand Grimoire
The primary source for the Grand Grimoire is the 1612 Italian edition, supposedly edited by Antonio Venitiana del Rabina. A 19th century French translation was fraudulently backdated to the 16th century and reissued as Le Dragon Rouge, or The Red Dragon.
The ever cynical (and far under-researched) Arthur Edward Waite in The Book of Ceremonial Magic in 1913 had this to say:
"The Grand Grimoire is the most fantastic of the cycle and is introduced with great pomp by its pretended editor, Antonio Venitiana del Rabina, a personage whose name indicates the Italian origin of the work. By reason of its rarity and the great request in which it is, we are informed that it must be regarded as the veritable Magnum Opus--a view which may appear inconsequential, but for which the authority of Rabbinical writers is cited. It is to these authors that we owe the priceless treasure which innumerable charlatans have endeavoured to counterfeit, but have never succeeded in discovering."
The three superior spirits:
Astaroth, Grand Duke
The six inferior spirits:
Lucifuge Rofocale, Prime Minister
Agaliarept, Another Commander
Nebiros, Field-Marshal and Inspector-General.