From Wikipedia & The Free Dictionary
The seven deadly sins, also known as the capital vices or cardinal sins, are a classification of vices used in early Christian teachings to educate and protect followers from (immoral) fallen man's tendency to sin. The Roman Catholic Church divides sin into two types: venial (where regret only are needed) and capital or mortal (meaning they can kill the life of grace and risk eternal damnation unless absolved in the sacrament of confession). Beginning in the early 14th century, the popularity of the seven deadly sins with artists of the time ingrained them in human culture around the world.
Listed in the same order used by both Pope Gregory the Great in the 6th Century AD and Dante Alighieri, the seven deadly sins are as follows: luxuria (extravagance, later lust), gula (gluttony), avaritia (avarice/greed), acedia (sloth), ira (wrath), invidia (envy), and superbia (pride/hubris). Each deadly sin is opposed by one of the corresponding Seven Holy Virtues.
The identification and definition of the Sins is a fluid process and, like many aspects of religion, the idea of what each sin encompasses has changed over time. This was exacerbated by the fact that the Sins are not considered in a structured manner in the Bible, and works referencing the sins were gradually considered sources for others to base their definitions on. The second section of the Divine Comedy, Purgatorio, is the most well known source for defining the sins, though modern interpretations often show those guilty of the Sins suffering in Hell, not purifying themselves in Purgatory.
Lust (Latin,"la" xml:lang="la">luxuria) rape, and adultery are considered to be extreme forms of Lust. Dante's criterion was "excessive love of others," thereby detracting from the love due to God. However, Lust and love are two different things; while love involves mutual appreciation, trust, deep friendship, and willingness to sacrifice, Lust is little more than extreme sexual arousal. In Purgatorio, the penitent walks within flames to purge himself of lustful thoughts.
Gluttony (Latin,"la" xml:lang="la">gula) substance abuse or binge drinking. The penitent in the Purgatorio were forced to stand beneath two trees, unable to make use of the food hanging there and giving them a starved appearance.
Greed/Avarice (Latin,"la" xml:lang="la">cupiditiaavaritia)
- ''Main articles: Greed (treachery, covetousness)
Sloth/Laziness (Latin,"la" xml:lang="la">pigritiaacedia)
Wrath (Latin,"la" xml:lang="la">ira) Denial of the truth, both to others and in the form of self-denial. Impatience with the law, or seeking revenge outside of justice, such as with unnecessary vigilantism. Wishing to do evil or harm to others. A modern definition would also include anger towards others for no good reason, such as their race or religion, leading to discrimination. 'Minor' sins born of Wrath are some of the most serious, including murder, assault, discrimination, and genocide. Wrath is the only sin to not directly be asociated with selfishness or self interest, but instead with hate and anger. (See Crimes against humanity.) Dante described Wrath as "love of justice perverted to revenge and spite".
Envy (Latin,"la" xml:lang="la">invidia) schadenfreude'). Cenodoxus, Pride is the deadliest of all the sins and leads directly to the damnation of the famed Doctor of Paris, Cenodoxus. Pride was what sparked the fall of Lucifer from Heaven, and his subsequent transformation into Satan. Vanity and Narcissism are good examples of these sins, though both imply a more empty feeling of Pride, with little to back it up. In the Divine Comedy, the penitent were forced to walk with their heads bowed while they were whipped in order to induce feelings of humility.
Catholic VirtuesThe Catholic church recognises the seven virtues as opposite to the seven sins. These are also known as the Seven Contrary Virtues.
|Lust (undesired love)||Chastity (purity)|
|Gluttony (overindulgence)||Temperance (self-restraint)|
|Greed (avarice)||Charity (giving)|
|Laziness (idleness)||Diligence (zeal/integrity)|
|Wrath (anger)||Meekness (composure)|
|Envy (jealousy)||Love of others (admiration)|
|Pride (vanity)||Humility (humbleness)|
PunishmentsAccording to The Picture Book of Devils, Demons and Witchcraft, by Ernst and Johanna Lehner, each of the Sins was associated with a specific punishment in Hell.
|Sin||Punishment in Hell|
|Pride||Broken on the Wheel.|
|Envy||Placed in freezing water.|
|Sloth||Thrown in Snake Pits.|
|Greed||Put in pots of boiling oil.|
|Gluttony||Forced to eat rats, toads, and snakes.|
|Lust||Smothered in Fire and Brimstone.|
Associations with demonsIn 1589, Peter Binsfeld paired each of the deadly sins with a demon, who tempted people by means of the associated sin. According to Binsfeld's classification of demons, the pairings are as follows:
- Lucifer: Pride
- Mammon: Greed
- Asmodeus: Lust
- Leviathan: Envy
- Beelzebub: Gluttony
- Satan: Wrath
- Belphegor: Sloth
- Summa Theologiae, by St. Thomas Aquinas
- Inferno, by Dante Alighieri
- Purgatorio, by Dante Alighieri
- The Concept of Sin, by Josef Pieper
- The Traveller's Guide to Hell, by Michael Pauls& Dana Facaros
- Sacred Origins of Profound Things, by Charles Panati
- Faerie Queene, by Sir Edmund Spenser
- Picture Book of Devils, Demons and Witchcraft , by Ernst Lehner, Johanna Lehner
- Oxford Univ. Press series on Seven Deadly Sins (seven vols.), 2006.
- Article on Sloth's minor position in the sins
- The Seven Deadly Sins
- Catholic Catechism on The Moral Law
- The Seven Deadly Sins At Work
- 7 Deadly Sins, 7 Heavenly Virtues
- PITscan - A tool based on the earlier list of eight dangerous thoughts by Evagrius
- A humorous look at the seven deadly sins of Venture Capital
bj vadis' note: I used this concept for the runes in Deathblade Kraal'shazar (see labels: weapons and swords)